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So far Carlo Winterscheid has created 15 blog entries.

Solare Wärmenetze in der Wohnungswirtschaft

2018-11-15T15:46:45+00:00 Nov 5th, 2018|

Am 29. Oktober fand beim Verband Norddeutscher Wohnungsunternehmen in Hamburg der Workshop „Solare Wärmenetze in der Wohnungswirtschaft“ statt. Vorangegangen war im April 2018 eine Umfrage des Gesamtverbands der Wohnungswirtschaft unter rund 300 Mitgliedsunternehmen. Ergebnis: Zahlreiche Wohnungsunternehmen verfügen über eigene Wärmenetze und es besteht Interesse an der Integration großflächiger Solarthermie. Rund 25 Teilnehmende folgten der Einladung des vom BMWi geförderten Projekts Solnet 4.0 und diskutierten im Workshop Praxisbeispiele sowie Möglichkeiten, um solare Wärmenetze vermehrt in der Wohnungswirtschaft umzusetzen.

Im Gespräch wurde deutlich, dass die Realisierung von neuen solaren Wärmenetzen in der Wohnungswirtschaft hohe Anfangshürden überwinden muss: Zwar gibt es in vielen Wohnungsunternehmen ein generelles Interesse, den Energieverbrauch ihrer Immobilien weiter zu senken, jedoch stehen Themen wie bezahlbare Mieten, hohe konjunkturbedingte Baukosten und niedrige Erdgaspreise einer personalaufwendigen Projektentwicklung häufig entgegen. Auch der Respekt vor immer komplexer werdenden Anlagensystemen wurde als Vorbehalte auf Seiten der Wohnungswirtschaft diskutiert. Stadtwerke und Contractoren wurden daher als potenziell wichtige Partner der Wohnungswirtschaft identifiziert, wenn diese eine faire Preisgestaltung anbieten.

Ein weiterer wichtiger Diskussionspunkt lag in der Frage der energetischen Bilanzierung: Die bestehende Bilanzierung auf der Basis von Primärenergiefaktoren sowie die gebäudebezogene Betrachtung erschien zahlreichen Teilnehmern überholt. Diskutiert wurde der Bedarf nach neuen Methoden zur Bilanzierung von Quartieren oder Wohnungsbeständen, die Abkehr vom System der Primärenergiefaktoren hin zu CO2-Bilanzierungen und die Einführung von Herkunftsnachweisen für Erneuerbare Wärme.

Auch die Frage der Flächenverfügbarkeit für große solarthermische Anlagen wurde thematisiert. Während in Großstädten das Flächenangebot aufgrund der hohen Grundstückspreise aus Sicht der Workshop-Teilnehmer stark begrenzt ist und daher (mit entsprechend höheren Kosten) auf Dachflächen sowie Flächen weiter außerhalb der Städte ausgewichen werden muss, sind im Umfeld kleiner Städte auch Freiflächenanlagen denkbar. Dabei ist die Flächeneffizienz der Solarthermie vergleichsweise hoch, wie Thomas Pauschinger vom Steinbeis Forschungsinstitut Solites betonte: Um 15% des heutigen Fernwärmebedarfs solarthermisch zu  erzeugen ( d.h. ca. 12 TWh/a), wäre bundesweit lediglich eine Fläche von rund acht mal acht Kilometern nötig; das entspricht lediglich rund 20% der bereits heute mit Fotovoltaik-Freiflächen-Anlagen belegten Fläche.

Der Workshop wurde auch von der Hamburgischen Investitions- und Förderbank unterstützt.

Leitfaden Bürgerbeteiligungsmodelle für solare Nahwärme

2018-11-15T15:44:57+00:00 Nov 1st, 2018|

Der Österreichische Solarthermieverband Austria Solar hat zusammen mit einer Reihe verschiedener Projektpartner einen Leitfaden zur Bürgerbeteiligung beim Bau von Solarthermieanlagen veröffentlicht. In der Photovoltaikbranche sind Bürgersolarkraftwerke nichts Neues. Der neue Leitfaden soll nun ähnliche Projekte für die Solarthermie unterstützen.

Der Leitfaden wurde im Rahmen eines vom Klima- und Energiefonds geförderten Projekts „K&E Leitprojekt – Bürgerbeteiligungsmodelle für Solare Nahwärme“ erstellt. Der Leitfaden kann hier herunter geladen werden.

Thüringer Solarrechner und Servicestelle Solarenergie

2018-11-15T14:46:45+00:00 Oct 19th, 2018|

Seit Mai 2018 ist der Thüringer Solarrechner verfügbar. Mit Hilfe dieses kostenlosen webbasierten Tools können mit wenigen Klicks Berechnungen zu Ertrag und Wirtschaftlichkeit einer Photovoltaik- oder Solarthermieanlage entweder auf einer Dach- oder auch auf einer Freifläche in Thüringen angestellt werden.

In Ergänzung zu den bisherigen Aktivitäten ist bei der Thüringer Energie- und GreenTech Agentur ThEGA, die zum Beispiel für Thüringer Kommunen zum Thema Erneuerbare Energien und Energiemanagement Unterstützung anbietet, auch die Servicestelle Solarenergie eingerichtet worden. Diese richtet sich an potentielle Nutzergruppen des Thüringer Solarrechners wie private Gebäudeeigentümer, Bürgerenergiegenossenschaften, Betreiber von Gewerbegebieten und andere Unternehmen oder Kommunen und deckt inhaltlich die Themenbereiche Photovoltaik und Solarthermie umfassend ab. Sie bietet fachliche Beratung zu Potenzialen, Nutzungsmöglichkeiten und Fördermitteln zum Einsatz der Solarthermie und der Photovoltaik an und nutzt themenübergreifend die gesamte Kompetenz der ThEGA und der Thüringer erneuerbare Energien-Netzwerke bei der Erstbewertung und Begleitung von Projekten in die Realisierungsphase.

Weitere Informationen unter: www.solarrechner-thueringen.de, www.thega.de/solar

SDH seminar and study visits in Sweden

2018-10-15T17:20:05+00:00 Sep 18th, 2018|

About 70 stakeholders attended a seminar and two study visits targeted at solar block heating plants and hosted by Svensk Solenergi and EKSTA, in Kungsbacka, Sweden, within the SDHp2m project.

The participants represented municipal energy advisers, consultants, solar system contractors, municipal housing and district heating companies.  The seminar comprised presentations about the development of SDH in Europe, an IEA study about the available areas for collector arrays in connection to DH cities and recent Swedish feasibility studies.

Furthermore, the new plant at Ystad Arena (2017) was presented before EKSTA (municipal housing company) ended the seminar with their strategy and experiences related to solar heat as an introduction to the study visits: the solar heated residential area in Vallda Heberg (2013) and the new solar heated multifamily buildings connected to district heating in Tölö Ängar (2018).  EKSTA has extensive experience from solar block heating with more than 10 plants with roof integrated solar collectors in combination with wood pellet boilers, the oldest in operation since the 1980’s.

Text and photo: Jan-Olof Dalenbäck

 

How to identify suitable areas for SDH

2018-10-02T10:15:25+00:00 Sep 14th, 2018|

Though the availability of areas for large solar district heating plants remains a major point of contention, there are ways to expand the market. They include detailed local heat plans, the use of unconventional, e.g., polluted or contaminated, areas, and awareness raising among public and private stakeholders. A webinar organised as part of the Horizon 2020 project SDHp2m…from Policy to Market puts a spotlight on these topics. A recording of the session is available online.

Denmark: area is not an issue

“We don’t have a space problem,” PlanEnergi’s Per Alex Sørensen said, emphatically. “There is enough suitable land for solar district heating.” Denmark aims at 8 million m² of solar district heating, or SDH, in 2030, which would require 2,800 hectares for collector installations. “That could not be an issue, since we have around 62 million hectares of farmland,” Sørensen said. To provide a vivid comparison, he added: “Even today, golf courses require about 10,000 hectares.” Likewise, he said: “Solar thermal acts as a corridor between green areas. It is much better than farming in terms of preserving biodiversity.”

During his presentation, he offered some best practice guidelines on land management, as part of an eight-step approach based on the lessons learned in Denmark. First, he said, it was more beneficial to evaluate multiple sites to stimulate competition between landowners, so the price for leasing or acquiring land would not be too high.

Additionally, it was crucial to inform neighbours of any installation in advance to receive feedback concerning its visual impact and its effects on the landscape. And it avoids complaints if solar fields were protected by fences and three rows of trees.

Possible sites would then be evaluated according to local planning rules and project approval granted in compliance with heat network regulations.

Germany: protecting the landscape is a challenge

“Germany’s network of gas pipelines means there is no awareness that you need land for heat supply,” said Christian Maaß, Hamburg Institut Consulting, Germany, who also underlined that the solar energy industry and farmers had been fighting over land for several years because of the development of large ground-mounted PV systems. Germany required a case-by-base assessment of suitable SDH sites, he said, as there was no top-down planning at regional level, in strong contrast to the wind energy where privileged areas for wind parks were identified in local planning. The situation was made even more complicated by the fact that landscape planners were usually reluctant to accept ground-mounted solar plants and 30 % of Germany’s territory had been designated as protected landscape.

To install SDH on farmland, Maaß suggested not going the route via privileged land use, as in the case of power lines, for which one typically obtains building permission. Since it was uncertain whether SDH could become part of that category, it would be more promising to look for areas zoned for specific purposes.

France: more than one approach

Mathieu Eberhardt, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Énergie Environnement, the energy agency for the namesake region, said that the rules to govern ground-mounted SDH in France should be derived from the ones on photovoltaic systems. Anyone intending to build a plant measuring above 1,500 m² and 1.8 m in height should apply for a building permit and agree to an environmental impact assessment and a public consultation. Since agricultural land could not be used for energy production, installing an SDH plant on an area like that should require a permit for land use change, unless the collectors would be installed on a structure such as a greenhouse.

Jan-Olof Dalenbäck, who works at Chalmers University of Technology and heads CIT Energy Management, shared with the audience an interesting rule of thumb regarding the distance from the solar array to the district heating connection: A 1-km line for each 10,000 m² of solar was always economically feasible, he said. He explained: “The extra costs and losses incurred for 1 km compared to, say, 0.3 km of pipe connection to a 10,000 m² collector array are a small, acceptable addition to the solar heat price.”

Simona Weisleder, Hamburg Institut Consulting, emphasised that – besides agricultural land – there were several unconventional areas for a collector installation. They included the large roofs of shopping centres and parking garages, polluted or contaminated land, patches along traffic routes, as on acoustic barriers, or other large infrastructure components, such as sewage treatment basins. Of course, the installation itself could be more expensive than on a green meadow.

Text: Riccardo Battisti,  Ambiente Italia (Rome, Italy)
Chart: Hamburg Institut
Webinar video

SDH prefeasibility studies in Bosnia and Croatia

2018-10-02T10:01:21+00:00 Sep 14th, 2018|

In early 2016, the EU-funded CoolHeating project began using the know-how acquired during best practice projects in Austria, Denmark and Germany to help with the implementation of small modular renewable heating and cooling grids in southeastern Europe. In mid-March, the CoolHeating partners published seven prefeasibility studies of district heating and cooling across five municipalities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Slovenia. Because of geographical features, most projects favoured biomass, but solar thermal does play a crucial role in the proposals created for the Bosnian town of Visoko (see map) and the Croatian city of Ozalj. 

“In the Balkans, renewable energy projects have yet to become as commonplace as in central and western Europe,” said Dominik Rutz, Project Manager of CoolHeating at Munich-based WIP Renewable Energies. In Austria, Denmark and Germany, several operators have already integrated solar thermal or wood chips, or both, into their DHC networks while the market in southeastern Europe is still in its infancy. “In cooperation with local CoolHeating partners, we’ve tailored the systems to the geographical, meteorological, technical and economic potential of each site,” Rutz explained. It was for this reason that the studies of all seven sites in the five communities were drafted individually, resulting in distinctly different installations.

Visoko: Average heat price of 45 EUR/MWh, no connection charges

In Visoko, in Bosnia, the SDH system would consist of a 5,000 m² collector field and 13,500 m³ of seasonal pit storage. Along with 6.3 MW of water-to-water heat pumps, this system would meet the baseload of a new network. A 3.1 MW gas boiler would provide backup at peak demand and an 800 kWp PV generator would supply solar-sourced electricity. The authors of the prefeasibility study based their calculations on a connection rate of 100 % regarding public buildings and 80 % in the case of single-family houses.

Turnover would come from the sale of thermal energy and solar electricity, with the former contributing 88 % and the latter 12 % to the overall amount. The base price proposed for heat supply was 45 EUR/MWh. There would be no charge for connecting to the network, but it has been suggested that each customer should be required by contract to buy at least 3,500 kWh per year. Implementing the idea would mean that, over a maximum of 10 years, heat consumers would have to pay 51.13 EUR/MWh for each year they fail to fulfil the requirement.

Ozalj: EUR 21.6 million for biomass-solar DH system

In Ozalj, amidst a sea of trees, the global horizontal irradiation exceeds 1,200 kWh/m²/a, making the town particularly suitable for a system combining biomass and solar. The study’s authors suggested a 10 MWth biomass-fired CHP unit, an 18,000 m² collector field and 20,000 m³ of seasonal pit heat storage, plus a 26 MW gas boiler for peak loads. There was enough space to set up the installation close to the city’s industrial area, they stated.

The EUR 21.6 million system would be feasible if calculated at consumer prices of 70 EUR/MWh for heat and power. The business plan put the internal rate of return at 12 % and the payback period at 9.7 years, based on a 15-year simulation.

Until the end of this year, the preliminary project proposals need to be finalised, after which it will be up to the mayors and city councils to implement them. Provided they have or can get a solid funding base to invite tenders, those projects could also be of interest to solar thermal companies in western Europe. Rutz is hoping for many to be realised, as each implemented project could serve as a showcase to promote small, modular renewable heating and cooling grids in the Balkans.

Source: CoolHeating
Text: Frank Stier, Sofia

On-site collector testing: new standard in development

2018-10-02T10:02:51+00:00 Sep 14th, 2018|

Once a large solar field is set up at its designated location, what tests can be conducted to show that it performs as expected? Soon, the IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme may have an answer to this question, as it is working on internationalising Denmark’s testing procedure. No decision has been made on whether the procedure will become part of a full-fledged standard or be turned into a technical specification.

Two tasks of the IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme have been involved in drafting a proposal for a new ISO standard to cover solar energy, collector fields and performance testing: Task 55 ,Towards the Integration of Large SHC Systems into District Heating and Cooling Networks, and Task 57, Solar Standards and Certification.

Jan Erik Nielsen, who works at PlanEnergi, a Danish consultancy, and has his own firm called SolarKey, has been in charge of exploring the possibility of designing a new standard, mainly based on three sources:

  • The collector test methods described in the recently published ISO 9806:2017
  • Performance guarantee – Collector field power output, a fact sheet created by Task 45, Large Systems: Large Solar Heating and Cooling Systems, Seasonal Storage, Heat Pumps
  • Yield data from the long-term operation of large solar thermal fields in Denmark (see http://www.solvarmedata.dk)

Is a new standard coming? In October and December 2017, basic ideas for a new standard were presented during ISO and CEN technical committee meetings. The CEN committee’s subsequent vote on a rough draft showed that the proposal should not be viewed as a guarantee but rather a performance test and that it will be turned into a technical specification and not a full-blown standard. In regard to ISO, it has yet to be made clear whether it will become a technical specification or a standard. The ISO committee is awaiting a new draft and will come to a decision at its next meeting in September 2018.

Full article on Solarthermalworld
Text and Foto: Riccardo Battisti

First Spanish solar district heating system for 12,000 families

2018-10-02T09:27:38+00:00 Sep 14th, 2018|

In February 2018, Alcalá Ecoenergías signed a deal to construct a district heating system powered by solar and biomass in Alcalá de Henares, a city in Spain. The agreement between the local company and the municipal government will lead to one of the country’s first-ever large-scale solar district heating systems for supplying 12,000 homes with renewable heat.

The 38 million Euro investment, of which 32 million Euro have been allocated for biomass and 6 million Euro for solar thermal, near Spain’s capital of Madrid is expected to be completed by late 2019. Several other solar district heating projects are under development.

Full article on Solarthermalworld
Text: Alejandro Diego Rosell

Successful training session for Solar District Heating in France

2018-10-02T09:12:21+00:00 Jul 6th, 2018|

An expert training session has been organized on the 5th and 6th of June 2018 at the French National Institute for Solar Energy. More than 30 participants working in engineering offices, district heating operators, city technical services or project developers took part in this event. Regarding the success of this training, a second session is planned for the end of 2018.

The development of solar district heating is currently experiencing a strong dynamic that continues to accelerate. In Europe, this strong progression was until now carried by Sweden, Germany, Austria, and the inevitable Denmark … but it begins to spread in France!

Commissioned in 2014 in Balma, the first French solar district heating plant has since then been joined by four other installations, which should be followed by three new projects in 2018. With many other projects being considered, France seems to be at the beginning of a strong development of solar district heating.

In order to support this dynamic, the French National Institute for Solar Energy, AURA-Energy Environment and ADEME organized on June 5th and 6th 2018 a training entirely dedicated to solar district heating. This exceptional training brought together international experts with decades of experience, as well as French actors on the initiative of the first national projects. Designed for engineering offices and project developers wishing to build skills on solar heating networks, these two days addressed the theme with a high level of technicality, maintaining a very operational approach.
The seminar addressed technical, administrative and economic issues at different stages of a project: pre-study, sizing, design, implementation, commissioning, operation and maintenance. It has been punctuated with feedback from the Danish, Austrian and French experts and case studies with implementation on a calculation tool.

This training was conducted with the participation of ADEME, AURA-EE, CEA, INES INDDIGO, PlanEnergi, SOLID and Tecsol. It was supported by ADEME and the Horizon 2020 project SDHp2m.

Author: Cédric Paulus, CEA tech/ INES – French National Solar Energy Institute

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